Pig farming can fetch you a fortune within a very short while! Thinking of what agribusiness you could venture into? Need tips and heads up on the best practices? Look no further, this article is for you. We have outlined several advantages and essential pro tips for you to get started without hiccups.
From Kalahari red goats farming, to poultry farming, to heliculture in Nigeria and more, feel free to check out more farm guides on Naija Farmers here.
Let’s head into Pig farming and all you need to know to start a successful pig farm in Nigeria.
Pigs are known to reproduce quickly and in great numbers. One pig can reproduce roughly fifteen piglets at a time, thus making them the world’s top reproductive livestock. Pig meat, called pork is the most widely consumed meat in the world and the demand for it continues to grow daily. These factors and more has made pig farming, also called piggery, one of the most lucrative livestock production businesses in Nigeria.
What is pig farming?
Pig farming, a branch of animal husbandry, is the process of breeding and raising domestic pigs for personal or commercial purposes in a piggery. It entails the rearing of pigs for production of food or leather.
1) Food production
pork and other pig-related products such as bacon, gammon etc. This excessive consumption and demand for pig products makes it more than a lucrative farm business to venture into.
2) Leather production
Pig skin, though sensitive, can be used in the manufacturing of great leather products such as American footballs, boots, furniture, shoes, belts, gloves, saddle seats, and many more items. With its business opportunities spanning into the leather industry, your ability to diversify your pig farming income from just food production to leather production can lead to an increased return on your investment.
Benefits of pig farming.
1). The pig reproduction rate is very high.
2). Pigs have high market value.
3). Excessive global demand than supply.
4). Pigs have low mortality rate.
5). Cheaper to raise than many other farm anihumans
6). They have a strong immune system.
7). They sell at great prices.
8). Pigs grow very fast.
How to start up a pig farm.
1. Secure a location.
Land is the biggest investment in this business. The size of your farmland depends on the amount of pigs you start with and how big you want your business to become. Bear in mind that pigs reproduce in large numbers. It is also important to pick a non-residential area. Since the pig business could ooze off unpleasant odours in the neighbourhood, choosing a farmland that is slightly rural but close to the city is important.
The proximity of the farmland to the city will ensure it is easy to transport the pigs to the market. For people who would prefer to visit your farmland for a purchase, having a farm close to the city makes it a lot easier for them.
Picking the right site is a decision that is crucial to the success of your pig farm.
2. Build standard pens.
The pig pen must be built to protect them from the rain, predators, and to keep them warm or cool during odd temperatures. Due to the high sensitivity of pigs to oddly warm environments, it is important that the temperature of their pens are always regulated. Their houses can be cooled by using a wallow or a dripping water system.
The pig pens should also be built to be spacious enough to enable a free roam among the pigs. This would not just help prevent pig violence, but would also reduce the chances of a disease breakout affecting all the pigs.
The drainage in the pens should also be well constructed, so as to allow a free flow of water. Asides the drainage, small pig pools should be constructed because pigs like to play a lot in water and also use it as a way to cool off. This water should be changed daily at the same time the pens are cleaned, so that pests and diseases do not become a misfortune that befalls your pig farm.
3. Buy healthy piglets to raise.
This is an important aspect of your pig farm. You could purchase adult pigs with the aim of getting them to reproduce or purchase piglets and rear them to maturity. When sourcing for pigs, approach a reliable pig farm and select healthy animals. Remember to ask for their vaccination history. It is also advisable to employ the services of a veterinary doctor.
4. Feed the pigs.
This singular factor determines the growth rate of your pigs. Pigs eat anything but are big eaters, they always eat as long as there is food. When there is no food, they turn on their piglets or roam about and destroy things. So always make sure there is food. Just like human beings, Pigs eat a wide variety of foods, anything humans can eat, they can also eat. Like human beings as well, they need balanced diet such as fibre, energy, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals to thrive. Feed will take the major chunk of your spending in the farm.
The pig feed should be purchased in large quantities, and a larger part of the protein feed should be reserved for the mature pigs, since they consume more meals than the smaller pigs.
Their water supply should also be adequate because they consume an average of two to six gallons of water everyday. Ensure it’s always available, because water consumption has a major role to play in the overall health and growth of the pigs. The water can be provided through a sprinkler, trough, or a tub.
Since the pigs wouldn’t just drink their water, but would also step on it and wash their faces and body in it, it’s important the water should be changed on a regular basis.
5. Employ workers.
Depending on the number of pigs you have in your farm, you might need to hire more hands to help run your farm. A pig farm has its own share of labour, from changing the water in the pool in order to maintain good hygiene and prevent contamination, to feeding the pigs regularly, as well as other menial jobs that come with pig farming. You could start with a few workers and increase the workforce as the farm expands.
6. Carry out periodic sanitation.
The pig pens should undergo a periodic sanitation. Various methodologies have to be employed to ensure that the pig pens are well cleaned and taken care of to prevent an out-break of diseases.You can make the waste collection process easier by using slotted pen floors. This together with ensuring the pen floors are always dry is important for a disease-free environment to thrive.